Eye exams may one day predict Alzheimer’s

One day in the not too distant future, it may be possible to screen patients for Alzheimer’s disease using an eye exam.

By using technology similar to what is already found in many eye doctors’ offices, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have detected evidence suggesting Alzheimer’s in older patients who had no symptoms of the disease.

“This technique has great potential to become a screening tool that helps decide who should undergo more expensive and invasive testing for Alzheimer’s disease prior to the appearance of clinical symptoms,” said the study’s first author, Bliss E. O’Bryhim, MD, PhD,. “Our hope is to use this technique to understand who is accumulating abnormal proteins in the brain that may lead them to develop Alzheimer’s.”

Substantial brain damage from Alzheimer’s disease can occur years before any symptoms such as memory loss and cognitive decline appear. Scientists estimate that Alzheimer’s-related plaques can build up in the brain two decades before the onset of symptoms, so researchers have been looking for ways to detect the disease sooner.

Physicians now use PET scans and lumbar punctures to help diagnose Alzheimer’s, but they are both expensive and invasive.

Previous studies that involved examining the eyes of people who had died from Alzheimer’s had reported that the eyes of such patients showed signs of thinning in the center of the retina and degradation of the optic nerve.

In the new study, the researchers used a noninvasive technique — called optical coherence tomography angiography — to examine the retinas in eyes of 30 study participants with an average age in the mid 70s, none of whom exhibited clinical symptoms of Alzheimer’s.

Those participants were patients in The Memory and Aging Project at Washington University’s Knight Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center

“In the patients with elevated levels of amyloid or tau, we detected significant thinning in the center of the retina,” said one of the researchers “All of us have a small area devoid of blood vessels in the center of our retinas that is responsible for our most precise vision. We found that this zone lacking blood vessels was significantly enlarged in people with preclinical Alzheimer’s disease.”

The eye test used in the study shines light into the eye, allowing a doctor to measure retinal thickness, as well as the thickness of fibers in the optic nerve. A form of that test often is currently available in some optometrist and most ophthalmologist’s offices. In fact, the Mettawa office of Visibly Better Eye Care has the OCT machine needed to perform this test, but as of yet they are not offering this service.

For purpose of this study, however, the researchers added a new component to the more common test: angiography, which allows doctors to distinguish red blood cells from other tissue in the retina.

“The angiography component allows us to look at blood-flow patterns,” said the other co-principal investigator said. “In the patients whose PET scans and cerebrospinal fluid showed preclinical Alzheimer’s, the area at the center of the retina without blood vessels was significantly larger, suggesting less blood flow.”

“The retina and central nervous system are so interconnected that changes in the brain could be reflected in cells in the retina.”

Of the patients studied, 17 had abnormal PET scans and/or lumbar punctures, and all of them also had retinal thinning and significant areas without blood vessels in the centers of their retinas. The retinas appeared normal in the patients whose PET scans and lumbar punctures were within the typical range.

“We know the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease starts to develop years before symptoms appear, but if we could use this eye test to notice when the pathology is beginning, it may be possible one day to start treatments sooner to delay further damage,” one of the researchers said.

To read the original article in its entirety, click here. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/08/180823140921.htm

Age-related macular degeneration can occur much earlier than originally thought

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of visual impairment and blindness in industrialized countries. But the question is whether it can be defined as a disease in people 50 or older. In a recent study to determine the incidence of age-related macular degeneration undertaken as part of the Gutenberg Health Study of the University Medical Center of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) results showed that even persons under the age of 50 may be affected by an early form of the eye disease. Just under 4 percent of the 35 to 44-year-old subjects in the population-based study were found to be suffering from AMD.

Macular Degeneration

National Eye Institute of the NIH

In order to identify the age- and gender-specific incidence of AMD, the research team assessed the status of the ocular fundus of 4,340 participants in the Gutenberg Health Study. Evaluated were vascular structure, the head of the optic nerve, and the macula of the eye, which is the point of sharpest vision. The results, not surprisingly, documented that the incidence of AMD increases with age. What was surprising, was the fact that even persons under the age of 50 can already be affected by early stage AMD. In the age group of 35- to 44-year-olds, 3.8 percent of the subjects in the Study were found to be suffering from the disease. The findings thus contradict the accepted assumption that age-related macular degeneration only occurs in the section of the population that is over 50 years old.

Age-related macular degeneration leads to loss of visual acuity. The cause is damage to the cells in the region of the central retina also known as the “yellow spot.” Information on the annual number of individuals who develop AMD is still insufficient, but the Mainz-based researchers hope to remedy this situation with their next project. As the Gutenberg cohort was subjected to a follow-up examination five years after inclusion in the study, the research group now has access to more relevant and reliable data. “The prospective design of the study, in combination with the availability of interdisciplinary research data, should make it possible for us to identify risk factors for the development of late forms of AMD in our cohort. We are looking forward with some excitement to the results,” explained the team.

With more on-going research projects like these we continue to learn more about the diseases that can affect our eyes and vision and in turn how we can treat and hopefully cure them.

Read the original article at https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/07/140721100125.htm